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Oral Pathology & Biology

Introduction
Oral Pathology is a branch of Dentistry that is involved in the study of the aetiology and the diagnosis of oral diseases.
Oral diseases are varied and wide; it ranges from simple inflammatory lesions to more life-threatening condition like oral cancer. Survival and outcome of most oral lesions depend on early recognition and diagnosis.
Scope of work
1. Oral Diagnosis Clinic
This is the first point of call for all patients coming to the Dental Centre of the hospital especially when coming for the first time. This clinic which is under a consultant oral pathologist and manned by a qualified dental surgeon on daily basis see all the new patients and sort them out based on their treatment needs. The patients are subsequently referred to the appropriate unit of the Dental centre for definitive treatment after the necessary baseline radiographic investigation has been done. Patients with oral mucosal lesions that required only drug therapy are managed by this unit. The unit is equipped with a functioning modern dental chair, wall mounted X-ray units (intraoral radiographs and orthopantomogram) and various hand instruments.
2 Oral Biopsy Services
This unit receives specimens from other units of the dental centre especially oral and maxillofacial clinic and from patients from surrounding hospitals. These oral tissues from patients with various oral lesions are processed in the laboratory where histological slides are produced. The slides are subsequently read and interpreted by the consultant oral pathologist. The definitive diagnosis is then communicated to the referring doctor.

3 Oral cytology clinic
Patient with soft tissue oral swelling is usually referred to this clinic by the managing doctor. In this clinic, with the aid of a fine needle, representative sample is taken from the swelling. The sample is a smear on a glass slide and either air-dried or fixed in 70% alcohol. Air-dried sample is subsequently stained with Giemsa stain while the wet slides are stained with H&E stain in the laboratory. The slides are interpreted by the consultant and the diagnosis is either present or absent of malignancy. The advantage of the procedure is that the results are readily available and the trauma on the patient is minimal.

 

Staff strength and expertise

A: Consultants

S/N Name Qualifications with dates Area of specialization
1 Dr CA Iyogun BDS (1980), FMCDS (1989), FWACS (1992), FICS (2002). Oral Pathology
2 Dr OG Omitola BDS (1998), FMCDS (2006)

FWACS (2015) FICS (2015)

Oral Pathology

 

B: Resident Doctors

S/N Name Qualifications with dates Area of Interest
1 Dr I B Allwell-Brown BDS (2012) Oral Pathology
2 Dr N Dirisu BDS (2012) Oral Medicine

 

C: Technical

S/N Name Qualifications with dates Rank /Area of Specialization
1 Mr FC  Mbata BMLS, 2005.  AMLSCN 2007 Ast. Chief  Med. Lab. Scientist I/Histopathology
2 Mr T Barieeba SSCE 2002 Lab Supervisor
3 Mr E Omoedu SSCE  2000 Lab Asstistant

 

D: Other Staff

S/N Name Qualification with date Designation
1 Omere Celline Professional Diploma (OND) 2004 Dental Surgery Technician
2 Omomosi Ukar-Osuo Professional Diploma (OND) 2007 Dental Surgery Technician
3 Orlu Friday Professional Diploma (OND) 2010 Dental Surgery Technician
4 Ogbonna Destiny Professional Diploma (OND) 2011 Dental Surgery Technician

Brief History

The Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Biology started in 2007 with the employment of Dr. Olufemi Gbenga Omitola as a lecturer in the University of Port Harcourt and his appointment as Honorary Consultant in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. He was appointed Head of Department in 2008. Dr. CA Iyogun was appointed in 2012 to increase the number of consultants to two. In 2015, the department employed his first set of Resident Doctors for training in Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine following accreditation by both National Post Graduate College of Nigeria and West Africa College of Surgeons.

Modus Operandi

For fresh patient

–    The patient is registered after payment for registration.  This usually takes about 15-20 minutes. A referral letter is not mandatory for this registration.

–    Patient proceeds to the vital signs table where the vital signs are taken and recorded in the case notes. This takes about 10 minutes

–    The patient is given a teller to pay for a consultation. Time depends on the number of people at the pay point but can take about 20-30 minutes.

–    Then the patient is clerked by clinical dental students or house officers or resident doctor after confirmation of payment.

–    The patient is then presented to the Consultant in the clinic. This usually takes about 15-20 minutes. The differential diagnoses are drawn up and investigations to be done are listed.

–    If the patient requires intra-oral radiograph this is taken after the payment of the necessary fee at the pay point. This takes about 30 minutes

–    The patient is then referred to the appropriate Department in the Dental Center for further management

 

For old patient (Old patients are registered patient that have not visited the Centre in the last 6 months).

–    Case not is retrieved.

–    Patient proceeds to the vital signs table where the vital signs are taken and recorded in the case note. This takes about 10 minutes

–    The patient is given a teller to pay for the consultation. Time depends on the number of people at the pay point but can take about 20-30 minutes.

–    Then the patient is clerked by clinical dental students or house officers or resident doctor after confirmation of payment.

–    The patient is then presented to the Consultant in the clinic. This usually takes about 15-20 minutes. The differential diagnoses are drawn up and investigations to be done are listed.

–    If the patient requires intra-oral radiograph this is taken after the payment of the necessary fee at the pay point. This takes about 30 minutes. The reports are given to the patient directly.

–    The patient is then referred to the appropriate Department in the Dental Center for further management

 

PATIENT SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PROCESSING

–    Patients for blood collection are sent to the phlebotomy unit for collection

–    Patients for cytology/ smear are done in the outpatient clinic (Oral Diagnosis Clinic). This usually performed by the registrar in the unit or the senior registrar.

–    Patient for oral biopsy procedure will be referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic where it will be performed and the sample send to the Oral Pathology Laboratory.

–    In the Oral Pathology Laboratory, the sample is collected and registered after payment of the laboratory fee.

–    The sample is processed in the laboratory. This usually takes about 1-2 weeks depending on whether it is soft or hard tissue.

–    The slides are passed out of the laboratory and initially read by the registrar and then the senior registrar. The consultant will review all slides before they are passed out. The senior registrar and the consultant will sign the final report.

–    The review and typing of result usual take about 1 week.

 

RELEASE OF LABORATORY RESULT

–    The final result is returned to the laboratory where the patient can sign for a copy.

–    The result is issued by the laboratory assistant after confirming the patient paid for the procedure.

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